Advanced glycation end products: Building on the concept of the “common soil” in metabolic disease
Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article
- New York University
The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in promoting and/or exacerbating metabolic dysregulation is being increasingly recognized. AGEs are formed when reducing sugars nonenzymatically bind to proteins or lipids, a process that is enhanced by hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic environments characteristic of numerous metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes, and its complications. In this mini-review, we put forth the notion that AGEs span the spectrum from cause to consequence of insulin resistance and diabetes, and represent a “common soil” underlying the pathophysiology of these metabolic disorders. Collectively, the surveyed literature suggests that AGEs, both those that form endogenously as well as exogenous AGEs derived from environmental factors such as pollution, smoking, and “Western”-style diets, contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Specifically, AGE accumulation in key metabolically relevant organs induces insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which in turn provide substrates for excess AGE formation, thus creating a feed-forward–fueled pathological loop mediating metabolic dysfunction.
- Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), Diabetes, Insulin resistance (IR), Obesity, Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE)