Association of Obesity with Adverse Long-Term Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article
- Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi
- Erasmus University Rotterdam
- Harvard University
- Yale University
Importance: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are prone to body weight increase and obesity. Whether this predisposes these individuals to long-Term adverse outcomes is still unresolved. Objective: To describe the association of body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) with long-Term outcomes in patients with HCM in terms of overall disease progression, heart failure symptoms, and arrhythmias. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, retrospective data were analyzed from the ongoing prospective Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry, an international database created by 8 high-volume HCM centers that includes more than 6000 patients who have been observed longitudinally for decades. Records from database inception up to the first quarter of 2018 were analyzed. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI class (normal weight group, <25; preobesity group, 25-30; and obesity group, >30). Patients with 1 or more follow-up visits were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from April to October 2018. Exposures: Association of baseline BMI with outcome was assessed. Main Outcome and Measures: Outcome was measured against overall and cardiovascular mortality, a heart failure outcome (ejection fraction less than 35%, New York Heart Association class III/IV symptoms, cardiac transplant, or assist device implantation), a ventricular arrhythmic outcome (sudden cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy), and an overall composite outcome (first occurrence of any component of the ventricular arrhythmic or heart failure composite end point, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, or stroke). Results: Of the 3282 included patients, 2019 (61.5%) were male, and the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 47 (15) years. These patients were observed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.8 (3.3-13.3) years. There were 962 patients in the normal weight group (29.3%), 1280 patients in the preobesity group (39.0%), and 1040 patients in the obesity group (31.7%). Patients with obesity were more symptomatic (New York Heart Association class of III/IV: normal weight, 87 [9.0%]; preobesity, 138 [10.8%]; obesity, 215 [20.7%]; P <.001) and more often had obstructive physiology (normal weight, 201 [20.9%]; preobesity, 327 [25.5%]; obesity, 337 [32.4%]; P <.001). At follow-up, obesity was independently associated with the HCM-related overall composite outcome (preobesity vs normal weight: hazard ratio [HR], 1.102; 95% CI, 0.920-1.322; P =.29; obesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.332-1.919; P <.001) and the heart failure composite outcome (preobesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.192; 95% CI, 0.930-1.1530; P =.20; obesity vs normal weight: HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.485-2.393; P <.001) irrespective of age, sex, left atrium diameter, obstruction, and genetic status. Obesity increased the likelihood of atrial fibrillation but not of life-Threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusions and Relevance: Obesity is highly prevalent among patients with HCM and is associated with increased likelihood of obstructive physiology and adverse outcomes. Strategies aimed at preventing obesity and weight increase may play an important role in management and prevention of disease-related complications.