Functional optical coherence tomography for live dynamic analysis of mouse embryonic cardiogenesis
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution
Blood flow, heart contraction, and tissue stiffness are important regulators of cardiac morphogenesis and function during embryonic development. Defining how these factors are integrated is critically important to advance prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of congenital heart defects. Mammalian embryonic development is taking place deep within the female body, which makes cardiodynamic imaging and analysis during early developmental stages in humans inaccessible. With thousands of mutant lines available and well-established genetic manipulation tools, mouse is a great model to understand how biomechanical factors are integrated with molecular pathways to regulate cardiac function and development. Dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of the biomechanics of live mouse embryos have become increasingly important, which demands continuous advancements in imaging techniques and live assessment approaches. This has been one of the major drives to keep pushing the frontier of embryonic imaging for better resolution, higher speed, deeper penetration, and more diverse and effective contrasts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has played a significant role in addressing such demands, and its features in non-labeling imaging, 3D capability, a large working distance, and various functional derivatives allow OCT to cover a number of specific applications in embryonic imaging. Recently, our group has made several technical improvements in using OCT to probe the biomechanical aspects of live developing mouse embryos at early stages. These include the direct volumetric structural and functional imaging of the cardiodynamics, four-dimensional quantitative Doppler imaging and analysis of the cardiac blood flow, and fourdimensional blood flow separation from the cardiac wall tissue in the beating embryonic heart. Here, we present a short review of these studies together with brief descriptions of the previous work that demonstrate OCT as a valuable and useful imaging tool for the research in developmental cardiology.
- Doppler, blood flow, cardiodynamics, cardiovascular imaging, four-dimensional imaging, heart biomechanics, live imaging, mouse embryo, optical coherence tomography, pulse wave, speckle variance, stiffness, strain