Inflammation triggers liver X receptor-dependent lipogenesis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • Sophie R. Liebergall
  • Jerry Angdisen
  • Shun Hang Chan
  • Ying Ju Chang
  • Timothy F. Osborne
  • Alexander F. Koeppel
  • Stephen D. Turner
  • Ira G. Schulman

External Institution(s)

  • University of Virginia
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Georgetown University
  • Yale University
  • Johns Hopkins University


Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00364-19
JournalMolecular and cellular biology
Issue number2
StatusPublished - Jan 1 2020


Immune cell function can be modulated by changes in lipid metabolism. Our studies indicate that cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis increases in macrophages between 12 and 18 h after the activation of Toll-like receptors with proinflammatory stimuli and that the upregulation of lipogenesis may contribute to the resolution of inflammation. The inflammation-dependent increase in lipogenesis requires the induction of the liver X receptors, members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, by type I interferons in response to inflammatory signals. Instead of the well-established role for liver X receptors in stimulating cholesterol efflux, we demonstrate that liver X receptors are necessary for the proper resumption of cholesterol synthesis in response to inflammatory signals. Thus, liver X receptors function as bidirectional regulators of cholesterol homeostasis, driving efflux when cholesterol levels are high and facilitating synthesis in response to inflammatory signals. Liver X receptor activity is also required for the proper shutdown of a subset of type I interferon-stimulated genes as inflammation subsides, placing the receptors in a negative-feedback loop that may contribute to the resolution of the inflammatory response.

    Research areas

  • Inflammation, Lipid synthesis, Lipids, Macrophage, Nuclear receptor, Transcription, Transcriptional regulation

Citation formats


Liebergall, S. R., Angdisen, J., Chan, S. H., Chang, Y. J., Osborne, T. F., Koeppel, A. F., ... Schulman, I. G. (2020). Inflammation triggers liver X receptor-dependent lipogenesis. Molecular and cellular biology, 40(2), [e00364-19].


Liebergall, SR, Angdisen, J, Chan, SH, Chang, YJ, Osborne, TF, Koeppel, AF, Turner, SD & Schulman, IG 2020, 'Inflammation triggers liver X receptor-dependent lipogenesis', Molecular and cellular biology, vol. 40, no. 2, e00364-19.