Morning Blood Pressure Surge and Cardiovascular Disease Events and All-Cause Mortality in Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study
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- University of Alabama at Birmingham
- University of Mississippi
- New York University
- Columbia University
The cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk associated with morning blood pressure (BP) surge and its components among black adults, a population with high BP during the asleep period, is unknown. We studied Jackson Heart Study participants who completed 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring at the baseline exam in 2000 to 2004 (n=761). The sleep-trough morning surge was calculated as the mean 2-hour postawakening systolic BP (SBP) minus the lowest nighttime SBP, preawakening morning surge as mean 2-hour postawakening SBP minus mean 2-hour preawakening SBP, and rising morning surge as the first postawakening SBP minus the last preawakening SBP. The primary outcome was the occurrence of CVD events including the composite of coronary heart disease or stroke. Over a median follow-up of 14.0 years, there were 74 CVD (coronary heart disease or stroke) events and 144 deaths. Higher tertiles of sleep-trough, preawakening, and rising SBP surge were not associated with CVD risk after multivariable adjustment. In contrast, the highest tertile of the individual components of morning surge, including postawakening SBP (tertiles 2 and 3 versus 1: hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.58 [0.71-3.53] and 4.04 [1.91-8.52], respectively), lowest nighttime SBP (1.29 [0.59-2.84] and 2.87 [1.41-5.83]), preawakening SBP (1.26 [0.57-2.80] and 2.79 [1.32-5.93]), first postawakening SBP (1.60 [0.73-3.51] and 2.93 [1.40-6.16]), and last preawakening SBP (1.23 [0.57-2.68] and 2.99 [1.46-6.12]), was associated with increased CVD risk after multivariable adjustment. Among black adults, the components of morning SBP surge, but not morning SBP surge itself, were associated with increased CVD risk.
- blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease, mortality, stroke